Deprecated: mysql_connect(): The mysql extension is deprecated and will be removed in the future: use mysqli or PDO instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.database.php on line 263

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 255

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /mnt/stor2-wc1-dfw1/398465/453240/www.waterpolicy.ca/web/content/modules/class.inputfilter.php on line 253

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The Living Water Policy Project
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PROVINCIAL WATER POLICY COMPARISON TOOL


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Use this page to directly compare water policy in THE canadian provinces & TERRITORIES along 17 different dimensions ORGANIZED INTO 4 MAJOR CATEGORIES.
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Last Update: Apr 30/14

Last Update: May 20/14

Last Update: Sep 30/11
 Basic Introduction
Central Water Legislation
The Water Act (2000) supports and promotes the conservation and management of water, including the wise allocation and use of water.

The Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (2000) supports and promotes the protection, enhancement, and wise use of the environment.  The Act's individual regulations cover a wide range of activities, from beverage container recycling and pesticide sales, potable water, to wastewater and storm drainage. Other legislation that covers a variety of aspects of water management in Alberta includes: Responsible Energy Development Act (2012)

Alberta Land Stewardship Act
(2009), Energy Resources Conservation Act (2000), Irrigation Districts Act (2000), Municipal Government Act (2000), Public Health Act (2000), Public Lands Act (2000), and Public Utilities Board Act (2000). Federal legislation such as the Fisheries Act (1985, amended in 2012), the Navigation Protection Act (2012, formerly the Navigable Waters Protection Act 1985), The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (amended in 2012) and the Migratory Birds Convention Act (2000) also have relevance for water management in Alberta.
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In British Columbia, the Water Act (1996)-to be replaced by WSA-is the primary provincial statue regulating water resources and vesting the ownership of water in the crown. Currently, the Water Act provides for the allocation and management of surface water by authorizing water licences and approvals relying on the principle of prior allocation (First in Time, First in Right), development of water management plans, and establishment of water user communities. The Water Act, through regulations, also sets out protective measures for wells and groundwater and identifies offences and penalties.

The Water Protection Act (1996) prohibits bulk export of water and large-scale water transfers between watersheds.   The Drinking Water Protection Act (2001) resides with the BC Ministry of Health, although the Local Health Authorities continue to be the primary administrators of the Act. The Act stipulates that water supply systems must provide potable water and must have construction and operating permits. The Drinking Water Protection Act has established qualification standards for operators, as well as enabling requirements for emergency response, water monitoring, water source and system assessments, drinking water protection plans, and other protective measures for drinking water supplies. It enables a robust source protection planning regime; however, to date no such plans have been initiated. This Act works in conjunction with the Public Health Act (2008). In BC, the Environmental Management Act (2003) regulates industrial and municipal waste discharge, pollution, hazardous waste, and contaminated site remediation. This act requires preparation of environmental plans for flood control, drainage, soil conservation, water resource management, waste management, and air quality management. Other important Acts governing water resources in BC include: Dike Maintenance Act (1996); Drainage, Ditch and Dike Act (1996); Environmental Assessment Act (2002); Fish Protection Act (1997); and Water Utility Act (1996).   Key regulations include: British Columbia Dam Safety Regulation (2000); Code of Practice for the Discharge of Water Produced from Coalbed Gas Operations (2005); Drinking Water Protection Regulation (2003); Ground Water Protection Regulation (2004); and Sensitive Streams Designation and licensing Regulation (2000).  In British Columbia (BC), the Water Act (1996) is the primary provincial statue regulating water resources and vesting the ownership of water in the crown.  The Water Act provides for the allocation and management of surface water by authorizing water licenses and approvals, development of water management plans, and establishment of water user communities. The Water Act also sets out protective measures for wells and groundwater and identifies offences and penalties.

The Water Protection Act (1996) prohibits bulk export of water and large-scale water transfers between watersheds.

The Drinking Water Protection Act (2001) resides with the BC Ministry of Health, although the Local Health Authorities continue to be the primary administrators of the Act. The Act stipulates that water supply systems must provide potable water and must have construction and operating permits. The Drinking Water Protection Act has established qualification standards for operators, as well as enabling requirements for emergency response, water monitoring, water source and system assessments, drinking water protection plans, and other protective measures for drinking water supplies. This Act works in conjunction with the Public Health Act (2008).

In BC, the Environmental Management Act (2003) regulates industrial and municipal waste discharge, pollution, hazardous waste, and contaminated site remediation.  This act requires preparation of environmental plans for flood control, drainage, soil conservation, water resource management, waste management, and air quality management.

Other important Acts governing water resources in BC include: Dike Maintenance Act (1996); Drainage, Ditch and Dike Act (1996); Environmental Assessment Act (2002); Fish Protection Act (1997); and Water Utility Act (1996).

Key regulations include: British Columbia Dam Safety Regulation (2000); Code of Practice for the Discharge of Water Produced from Coalbed Gas Operations (2005); Drinking Water Protection Regulation (2003); Ground Water Protection Regulation (2004); and Sensitive Streams Designation and licensing Regulation (2000).


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Key legislation that was created to manage Manitoba's water resources include the:

The Manitoba Environment Act (1996) although the Act has a broader application than just water, the major review of water projects takes place under this legislation. The intent of this Act is to develop and maintain an environmental protection and management system in Manitoba, which will ensure that the environment is protected and maintained in such a manner as to sustain a high quality of life, including social and economic development, recreation, and leisure for this generation and for future generations.

The Drinking Water Safety Act (2008) provides expertise and educational materials about drinking water safety to water suppliers and the public, to communicate with government departments and agencies, and to facilitate cooperative efforts in drinking water programs and policies as well as issue appropriate licenses and permits associated with the act.

The Water Protection Act (2006) provides for the protection and stewardship of Manitoba's water resources and aquatic ecosystems. The Act allows the minister to establish "water quality zones" (Section 5 (1)) over sensitive areas of the province to protect water, protect against invasive species, or protect against threats of water shortage. This Act also established the formation of regionally based Watershed Management Plans, an ongoing effort to ensure integrated development with watersheds across the province.

The Public Health Act (2006) is a wide-ranging public health policy that includes a number of measures to protect against pollution of drinking water and to ensure the safe disposal of wastewater.

The Water Rights Act (2006) regulates the allocation of water licenses in Manitoba. For analysis of the First in Time Principle of Allocation adhered to in Manitoba see the report Buried Treasure: Groundwater permitting and Pricing in Canada (Nowlan, 2006).

The Water Supply Commissions Act (1997) establishes the powers of water commissioners over local water supply areas. This Act gives authority for the construction and maintenance of local waterworks.

The Water Resources Conservation and Protection Act (2006) protects against the interbasin transfer of water and excludes potable water from being considered a manufactured product.

The Ground Water and Water Well Act (2008) establishes licenses for the drilling of groundwater and provides certain protections from groundwater pollution.

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Key Ministries & Departments
In 2012, the ministries of Alberta Environment and Water (AEW) and Alberta Sustainable Resource Development (SRD) were amalgamated into the ministry of Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development. The new ministry is primarily responsible for administering the Water Act (2000) and the Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (2000), though the Alberta Energy Regulator has assumed some of this role.  AESRD is the primary department leading Water for Life (2003) implementation and overseeing regulation of municipal drinking water, wastewater, and storm drainage systems.  It is additionally responsible for forestry and Crown land, and leading land-use planning under the Land-use Framework.

  Alberta Energy is responsible for stewarding Alberta's energy resources and administering energy leases.  . The Alberta Energy Regulator is an agency accountable to the Minister of Energy. It has responsibility to make approvals under the Water Act and public lands laws that relate to energy development. It decides on energy applications, monitors for compliance and oversees decommissioning. Agriculture and Rural Development works with the agricultural sector including irrigators. Alberta Infrastructure administers grants to municipalities for water and wastewater infrastructure. Municipal Affairs approves private sewage disposal systems.

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The Water Stewardship Division of the BC Ministry of Environment manages provincial water resources through activities such as: administering water rights and legislation; developing legislation and non-regulatory tools and participating in sustainable water resource planning and management; carrying out public safety functions to minimize risk from floods, droughts, and dam failures; and developing and delivering science and information critical to understanding and making informed decisions about BC's water resources.

The Integrated Land Management Bureau of the Ministry of Forests and Range manages access to resources located in BC's crown lands, which make up 94% of the province (Government of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests, 1994). BC Hydro (2010) is a crown corporation that manages and operates 30 hydroelectric facilities in the province, which account for 80% of the province's electricity. The Ministry of Community and Rural Development addresses communities' water related infrastructure.   The Ministry of Health is responsible for drinking water safety.  The Water Stewardship Division of the BC Ministry of Environment (n.d.) manages provincial water resources through activities such as: administering water rights and legislation; developing legislation and non-regulatory tools and participating in sustainable water resource planning and management; carrying out public safety functions to minimize risk from floods, droughts, and dam failures; and developing and delivering science and information critical to understanding and making informed decisions about BC's water resources.

The Integrated Land Management Bureau of the Ministry of Forests and Range manages access to resources located in BC's crown lands, which make up 94% of the province (Government of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests, 1994).

BC Hydro (2010) is a crown corporation that manages and operates 30 hydroelectric facilities in the province which accounting for 80% of the province's electricity.

The Ministry of Community and Rural Development (n.d.) addresses communities' water related infrastructure.

The Ministry of Health is responsible for drinking water safety.


last update: (May 20/14)
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The Department of Manitoba Water Stewardship is committed to preserving our rivers, lakes, and wetlands. The department works to promote the importance of having quality water for people, the environment, and the economy (Government of Manitoba, n.d).

Manitoba Department of Infrastructure and Transportation is responsible for funding of water and wastewater infrastructure.

The Department of Health is responsible for the safety of drinking water.

As well, many aspects of water supply come under municipal jurisdiction in Manitoba. The Department of Local Government, previously Intergovernmental Affairs, regulates municipal authority. Several other ministries are mostly affected by water regulations, especially Agriculture and Innovation and Energy and Mines.

Finally, environmental assessments are under the domain of the Conservation Department, roughly analogous to the Environment Ministry of other provinces.


last update: (Sep 30/11)
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Water Rights

Alberta's water rights system is based on prior allocation, where the Government of Alberta issues licences to divert and use water based on the first in time first in right principle (FITFIR). This principle determines which water users can obtain their allocated water volume before other users in times of water shortage (de Lo√ę, Varghese, Ferreyra, & Kreutzwiser, 2007).

Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development is the agency primarily responsible for water allocation under the Water Act (2000). A water licence identifies the water source, the location of the diversion point, the volume, rate, and timing of water to be diverted, the priority the allocation established by the licence, and any licence conditions (Government of Alberta, 2010).  Maximum eligible quantities are assigned based on intended use and potential impacts to other users and environment.  Household (domestic) and traditional agriculture use does not require a licence and the maximum annual allocation is stipulated in the Water Act (2000). A water rights holder may apply to transfer all or a portion of a licensed allocation in basins where a water management plan has been approved to allow these transfers. The Approved South Saskatchewan River Basin Water Management Plan, for example, allows for transfers of water rights within the South Saskatchewan River Basin. This ability to transfer water rights is particularly relevant in watersheds where no new permanent surface-water licences (temporary groundwater licenses, when not directly influencing surface water, are still being issued) are being issued, as in the Milk, Bow, and Oldman River basins in southern Alberta (Alberta Environment, 2006). These latter two basins are sub-basins of the South Saskatchewan Basin. Part 11 of the Water Act defines Offences and Penalties.  A maximum penalty of 1 000 000 fine for corporations found guilty of specific offences (as outlined in the act). First Nations rights to water are not yet explicitly and legally acknowledged in any provincial or federal legislation. The 1987 Federal Water Policy (Environment Canada, 1987) acknowledges Native interests in water but this has not generally been reflected in provincial allocation decisions. 

last update: (Apr 30/14)
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Water rights in BC are based on the prior allocation system (i.e. First in Time, First in Right). This means that the oldest date of licence issues enables full access to the allocated amount before the next user (by date) is able to access their allocation. When two or more licences with the same priority date exist on the same stream precedence is as follows (ordered highest to lowest): domestic, waterworks, mineral trading, irrigation, mining, industrial, power, hydraulic, storage, conservation, conveying, and land improvement (Water Act, 1996). Water rights can be transferred, but include an appurtenancy requirement and therefore involve specific permission and application to the government.

The Water Stewardship Division of the Ministry of Environment is primarily responsible for water allocation. Most licences (especially older ones) do not expire, however more recent energy licences do have a 40-year limit. First Nations rights to water are not yet explicitly and legally acknowledged in any provincial or federal legislation. The 1987 Federal Water Policy (Environment Canada, 1987) acknowledges Native interests in water but this has not generally been reflected in provincial allocation decisions.  Water rights in BC are based on the prior allocation system (i.e., first in time, first in right).  When two or more licenses with the same priority date exist on the same stream precedence is as follows (ordered highest to lowest): domestic, waterworks, mineral trading, irrigation, mining, industrial, power, hydraulic, storage, conservation, conveying, and land improvement (Water Act, 1996).   Water rights can be transferred.

The Water Stewardship Division of the Ministry of Environment is primarily responsible for water allocation.¬† Licenses do not expire, and there is no maximum withdrawal quantity (de Lo√ę, Varghese, Ferreyra, & Kreutzwiser, 2007).

First Nations rights to water are not yet explicitly and legally acknowledged in any provincial or federal legislation. The 1987 Federal Water Policy (Environment Canada, 1987) acknowledges Native interests in water but this has not generally been reflected in provincial allocation decisions.


last update: (May 20/14)
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The Water Rights Act (2006) gives all property owners equal access to water on a first come, first served basis. Any individual or corporation who wishes to use water for agricultural, municipal, industrial, irrigation, or other purposes must first obtain a license. Use of surface water and groundwater for domestic purposes or irrigation does not require a Water Rights License unless consumption exceeds 25,000 litres, the equivalent of 5,500 imperial gallons, per day (Government of Manitoba, Water Stewardship Division, n.d.)  Licenses have precedence in relation to the date of submission of the application of each license. A license that is renewed in accordance with the regulation retains the precedence established in the original license. Note that a licensee is governed by the rights of all preestablished licensees and preestablished domestic users who have priority. The minister may reserve unlicensed water so that a survey may be made showing how the water may be used or diverted to the greatest advantage for Manitobans. The minister may also reserve unlicensed water for such uses and purposes specified by the minister that, in the opinion of the minister, will be of the greatest advantage to the residents of the province. Where water has been reserved, the minister shall not issue a license for this water except in accordance with the terms of the reservation.

The Crown in Manitoba controls use and diversion of water throughout the province. Permission or rights to use water is obtained by license or authorization under The Water Rights Act (2006). The Water Licensing Branch has the responsibility for allocating, under the Water Rights Act (2006), the use of water resources within the province. The Lieutenant Governor in Council may make regulations for the purposes of carrying out the provisions of the Water Rights Act (2006) according to their intent.

There does not seem to be a maximum eligibility for extraction. Licenses are issued for a time period appropriate for the situation to a maximum of 20 years and may be renewed upon application. A license may be suspended or cancelled for many reasons, such as not making beneficial use of the water, not paying abstraction rentals, or not following the terms and conditions of the license. There have been few instances of water extraction being denied. Only in the southwest part of the province in the Assiniboine Delta region has the province limited extraction license approval.

A Water Rights License does not assure that water will always be available. The license authorizes the diversion and use of a specified quantity of water, if available.

The Clean Environment Commission is an arms length quasi-judicial board with authority to review applications for water transfer. In 2006, the Clean Environment Commission recommended against a license from the Pembina Valley Water Cooperative to transfer water from the Sandilands Aquifer into this fast growing region of southwest Manitoba (Manitoba Eco-Network, n.d.) 

First Nations rights to water are not yet explicitly and legally acknowledged in any provincial or federal legislation. The 1987 Federal Water Policy (Environment Canada, 1987) acknowledges Native interests in water but this has not generally been reflected in provincial allocation decisions.


last update: (Sep 30/11)
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Data Collection/ Monitoring
Protecting Alberta's Environment Act, was passed in 2013.  The Act establishes the Alberta Environmental Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting Agency whose primary purposes, as stated by the act, are to:

·      obtain credible and relevant scientific data and other information regarding the condition of the environment in Alberta, ·      to ensure the data and other information are available and reported to the public in an open and transparent manner. The Act requires the agency to communicate information to the public.  No regular schedule of such reporting was determined by the Act.   Long-Term River Network monitors major rivers throughout the province for a wide range of water quality parameters to build an extensive database of water quality information that allows statistical trend assessment. The annual report on River Water Quality Index (Government of Alberta, Environment, 2010a) provides an annual snapshot of water quality in Alberta's major rivers. Alberta Environment offers an online inventory of water sampling locations and water quality data (Government of Alberta, Environment, 2005). Monitoring networks for streams and wetlands are not as well developed as those for rivers and lakes (Government of Alberta, 2010). Maps: This Government of Alberta, Alberta Environment (n.d.b) map shows the surface water monitoring stations for river water quality monitoring: http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
brary/7713.pdf
This Government of Alberta, Ministry of Environment (n.d.a) map shows where lakes were monitored in Alberta in 2008-9: http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
brary/8047.pdf
Alberta Environment has the Groundwater Observation Well Network (Government of Alberta, Environment, 2010b) that monitors groundwater levels and select quality indicators in strategic locations across Alberta.¬† In 1957, three wells were installed; by 1982 there were 145 wells, 55 of which were spread around the province and 90 wells specifically monitored conditions in the oil sands area. About 200 wells are in place today (de Lo√ę, Varghese, Ferreyra, & Kreutzwiser, 2007).¬† The Lower Athabasca Regional Plan makes a commitment to developing a comprehensive Regional Groundwater Monitoring Network which would include expanded monitoring. There are no provincial or territorial programs to monitor drinking water or water resources in First Nations communities. Alberta Environment and Water partners with other government departments and governments, industry, and other stakeholders to monitor and collect surface water quality data around the province.

Long-Term River Network monitors major rivers throughout the province for a wide range of water quality parameters to build an extensive database of water quality information that allows statistical trend assessment. The annual report on River Water Quality Index (Government of Alberta, Environment, 2010a) provides an annual snapshot of water quality in Alberta's major rivers.

Alberta Environment and Water offers an online inventory of water sampling locations and water quality data (Government of Alberta, Environment, 2005). Monitoring networks for streams and wetlands are not as well developed as those for rivers and lakes (Government of Alberta, 2010).

Maps:

This Government of Alberta, Alberta Environment (n.d.b) map shows the surface water monitoring stations for river water quality monitoring: http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
brary/7713.pdf


This Government of Alberta, Ministry of Environment (n.d.a) map shows where lakes were monitored in Alberta in 2008-9: http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
brary/8047.pdf


Alberta Environment and Water has the Groundwater Observation Well Network (Government of Alberta, Environment, 2010b) that monitors groundwater levels and select quality indicators in strategic locations across Alberta.¬† In 1957, three wells were installed; by 1982 there were 145 wells, 55 of which were spread around the province and 90 wells specifically monitored conditions in the oil sands area. About 200 wells are in place today ((de Lo√ę, Varghese, Ferreyra, & Kreutzwiser, 2007).

There are no provincial or territorial programs to monitor drinking water or water resources in First Nations communities.


last update: (Apr 30/14)
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Drinking water is monitored at the following frequencies as indicated in Schedule B of the 2003 Drinking Water Protection Regulation:

  • 4 times per month for communities of 5 000 or fewer Drinking water is monitored at the following frequencies as indicated in Schedule B of the 2003 Drinking Water Protection Regulation:

    • 4 times per month for communities of 5,000 or fewer people.
    • For communities with between 5,000 and 90,000 residents, samples must be taken at the rate of 1 per month per 1,000 people.
    • For communities with over 90,000 residents, samples must be taken at the rate of 90 per month plus 1 sample per month for every 10,000 residents in excess of 90,000. In all cases, immediate reporting is required if the province's drinking water standards are not met.
    There is no comprehensive data collection or monitoring program in the province for environmental water quality. The system currently in place is the BC Environmental Monitoring System (EMS) (Government of British Columbia, n.d.). This system is the province's primary environmental data repository, but because the data comes from either the BC Ministry of Environment or permittee samples related to licensed discharges, monitoring parameters and frequency vary from site to site. The system is designed to capture data covering physical, chemical, and biological analyses performed on water, air, solid waste discharges, and ambient monitoring sites throughout the province. The data in the EMS collection is not publicly accessible except by request, and a fee is charged. There are no provincial or territorial programs to monitor drinking water or water resources in First Nations communDrinking water is monitored at the following frequencies as indicated in Schedule B of the 2003 Drinking Water Protection Regulation:

    • 4 times per month for communities of 5,000 or fewer people.
    • For communities with between 5,000 and 90,000 residents, samples must be taken at the rate of 1 per month per 1,000 people.
    • For communities with over 90,000 residents, samples must be taken at the rate of 90 per month plus 1 sample per month for every 10,000 residents in excess of 90,000. In all cases, immediate reporting is required if the province's drinking water standards are not met.
    There is no comprehensive data collection or monitoring program in the province for environmental water quality. The system currently in place is the BC Environmental Monitoring System (EMS) (Government of British Columbia, n.d.). This system is the province's primary environmental data repository, but because the data comes from either the BC Ministry of Environment or permittee samples related to licensed discharges, monitoring parameters and frequency vary from site to site. The system is designed to capture data covering physical, chemical, and biological analyses performed on water, air, solid waste discharges, and ambient monitoring sites throughout the province. The data in the EMS collection is not publicly accessible except by request, and a fee is charged. There are no provincial or territorial programs to monitor drinking water or water resources in First Nations communities.  ities.  people;
  • for communities with between 5 000 and 90 0000 residents, samples must be taken at the rate of 1 per month per 1000 people;
  • for communities with over 90 000 residents, samples must be taken at the rate of 90 per month plus 1 sample per month for every 10 000 residents in excess of 90 000.¬†

In all cases, immediate reporting is required if the province's drinking water standards are not met.

There is no comprehensive data collection or monitoring program in the province for environmental water quality.  The system currently in place is the BC Environmental Monitoring System (Government of British Columbia, n.d.a).  This system is the province's primary environmental data repository, but because the system data come from either the BC Ministry of Environment or permittee samples related to licensed discharges, monitoring parameters and frequency vary from site to site. The system is designed to capture data covering physical, chemical, and biological analyses performed on water, air, solid waste discharges, and ambient monitoring sites throughout the province.   The data in the EMS collection is not publicly accessible except by request, and a fee is charged.

There are no provincial or territorial programs to monitor drinking water or water resources in First Nations communities.


last update: (Apr 30/14)
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The Water Quality Management Section of the Manitoba Water Stewardship department operates an ambient and hydromentric monitoring network on major streams and lakes, including Shoal Lake, other municipal water supplies, and recreational beaches, assisted by volunteers, organizations such as Conservation Districts, and Regional personnel (Government of Manitoba, Water Quality Management, n.d.).

The quality of water at nearly 50 beaches is monitored and information is posted as it becomes available (Government of Manitoba, Manitoba Water Stewardship, n.d.)

As part of the basic scientific activities related to the draft Nutrient Management Strategy (2001), considerable water quality work is being undertaken on Lake Winnipeg to better understand its existing condition, and to develop a water quality model to assist with better managing inputs of nutrients.

The Groundwater Management Division, which is part of the Manitoba Water Stewardshi, provides hydrometric monitoring and groundwater data compilation for the Province. The Water Quality Management Section advises on groundwater resource management and protection and carries out studies, which enhance knowledge of groundwater resources in the province, and also provides maps and reports, which describe local and regional resources and quality and identifies areas where quality problems may or may not occur.

There are no provincial or territorial programs to monitor drinking water or water resources in First Nations communities.


last update: (Sep 30/11)
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Transboundary Issues
The 1909 Boundary Waters Treaty applies to boundary waters between Canada and the United States and it also apportions the transboundary waters, the St Mary and Milk Rivers, between the U.S. and Canada. The Master Agreement on Apportionment (1969) between Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Canada, sets out a formula for sharing eastward flowing rivers and streams in the South Saskatchewan River Basin across provincial boundaries. It requires each upstream province to pass 50 percent of natural flow to the downstream province. In 1997, governments of Canada, Alberta, British Columbia, the Northwest Territories (NWT), Saskatchewan, and the Yukon committed to the Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement. For the Mackenzie River Basin agreement, the Yukon and NWT completed a bilateral agreement in 2000; other Mackenzie River Basin parties are working toward negotiating other bilateral agreements.

There are no agreements between any levels of government acknowledging First Nations water rights, except those delineated under land claim or self-government agreements, such as the Nisga'a Agreement. The 1909 Boundary Waters Treaty applies to boundary waters between Canada and the United States and it also apportions the transboundary waters, the St Mary and Milk Rivers, between the U.S. and Canada. The Master Agreement on Apportionment (1969) between Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Canada, sets out a formula for sharing eastward flowing rivers and streams in the South Saskatchewan River Basin across provincial boundaries. It requires each upstream province to pass 50 percent of natural flow to the downstream province. In 1997, governments of Canada, Alberta, British Columbia, the Northwest Territories (NWT), Saskatchewan, and the Yukon committed to the Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement. For the Mackenzie River Basin agreement, the Yukon and NWT completed a bilateral agreement in 2000; other Mackenzie River Basin parties are working toward negotiating other bilateral agreements.

There are no agreements between any levels of government acknowledging First Nations water rights, except those delineated under land claim or self-government agreements, such as the Nisga'a Agreement.


last update: (Apr 30/14)
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BC shares an international border with the American States of Idaho, Montana, and Washington. Transboundary water (and environmental) agreements are listed below.

  • Environmental Cooperation Agreement between the Province of British Columbia and the State of Washington (1992), non-binding
  • Kootenay Lake Order (1938 IJC Order)
  • Osoyoos Lake Order of Approval (last updated 1985, IJC order)
  • Waneta Dam on the Pend D'Oreille Order of Approval (1952, IJC order)
  • Columbia River Treaty (1961, ratified 1964, bilateral treaty-renegotiation begins in 2014)
  • Abbotsford-Sumas International Task Force (1996 and ongoing, non-binding)
  • Canada-United States Skagit River Treaty (1984, bilateral treaty)
  • Canada-United States Pacific Salmon Treaty (1985, bilateral treaty)
There are no agreements between any levels of government acknowledging First Nations water rights, except those delineated under land claim or self-government agreements, such as the Nisga'a Agreement.  BC shares an international border with the American States of Idaho, Montana, and Washington.  Transboundary water (and environmental) agreements are listed below.
  • Environmental Cooperation Agreement between the Province of British Columbia and the State of Washington (1992), non-binding
  • Kootenay Lake Order (1938 IJC Order)
  • Osoyoos Lake Order of Approval (last updated 1985, IJC order)
  • Waneta Dam on the Pend D'Oreille Order of Approval (1952, IJC order)
  • Columbia River Treaty (1961, ratified 1964, bilateral treaty-coming up for renegotiation)
  • Abbotsford-Sumas International Task Force (1996 and ongoing, non-binding)
  • Canada-United States Skagit River Treaty (1984, bilateral treaty)
  • Canada-United States Pacific Salmon Treaty (1985, bilateral treaty)

There are no agreements between any levels of government acknowledging First Nations water rights, except those delineated under land claim or self-government agreements, such as the Nisga'a Agreement.


last update: (Apr 30/14)
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To resolve conflicts between upstream uses and downstream needs, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Canada signed the Prairie Provinces Water Board Agreement in 1948. This agreement worked well until the 1960s, when the provinces began requesting large allocations of water. In 1969, the parties to the original agreement signed the Master Agreement on Apportionment, which continues to guide the activities of the Prairie Provinces Water Board to this day. There are non-binding water quality objectives in place under the Prairie Provinces Water Board Agreement (1948)

The Master Agreement on Apportionment (1969) contains a simple formula based on the principle of equal sharing of available water in the prairies. The formula states that Alberta and Saskatchewan may each take up to one half of the natural flow of water originating within their boundaries and one half of the flow entering the province. The remainder is left to flow into Manitoba. Although calculating natural flow can be difficult the results of the Master Agreement on Apportionment are that all three provinces, even in drought periods, end up with approximately equal shares of the total water flow.

In order to provide for development, in 1989 Canada and the United States entered into an agreement for water supply and flood control in the Souris River Basin (Government of Manitoba, Transboundary Water Agreements, n.d.).  This agreement called for the construction, operation, and maintenance of reservoir projects in the Canadian portion of the basin. It was intended that these projects would provide water supply benefits in Canada and flood control benefits in the United States in a manner consistent with the Boundary Waters Treaty (1909).  This agreement also called for the establishment of a Bilateral Water Quality Monitoring Group to development recommendations on water quality objectives.

Other transboundary issues include the Northwest Area Water Supply Project and the Red River Valley Water Supply Project (Government of Manitoba, Transboundary Water Agreements, n.d.)

There are no agreements between any levels of government acknowledging First Nations water rights, except those delineated under land claim or self-government agreements, such as the Nisga'a Agreement.


last update: (Sep 30/11)
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 Water Quality
Drinking Water Laws
The Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (2000) regulates municipal drinking water systems, operator certification, source water protection and compliance.  Regional Health Authorities and Alberta Health and Wellness monitor drinking water. Drinking water in First Nations communities is generally under federal jurisdiction (Government of Alberta, Environment, 2009).

Drinking water falls under the jurisdiction of a number of regulations, which are enabled by three distinct Acts: the Agricultural Operation Practices Act (2000), the Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (2000), and the Public Health Act (2000). The regulations under Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (EPEA) relevant to drinking water are:
  • Activities Designation Regulation (1996)-waterworks systems regulated by Alberta Environment
  • Potable Water Regulation (2002)-minimum design standards for approved surface and groundwater treatment and distribution systems
  • Approvals and Registration Procedure Regulation (1993)-steps to be followed to acquire an approval or registration for a waterworks facility
  • Environmental Appeal Board Regulation (1993)-process in submitting an appeal
The regulations under the Public Health Act (2000) relevant to drinking water:
  • Nuisance and General Sanitation Regulation (2003)-requirements associated with domestic water and sewage systems that are outside the scope of EPEA.
The regulations under the Agricultural Operation Practices Act (2000) relevant to drinking water:
  • Standards and Administration Regulation (2000)-standards for confined feeding operations for the containment of the number of animals, manure storage facilities, seasonal feeding and bedding sites. (Note:¬† These types of operations are critical issues for drinking water in some parts of Alberta).
Once treated water moves out of the waterworks distribution system past the service connection for a residence, Municipal Affairs governs under the Safety Codes Act (2000), including the Plumbing Code Regulation. Drinking water providers must provide annual reports to Alberta Environment; Alberta Environment is working toward monthly reporting.  First Nations communities are located on Federal Reserve land, which falls within Federal jurisdiction. Provincial drinking water legislation does not apply to these communities. The Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (2000) regulates municipal drinking water systems, operator certification, source water protection and compliance.  Regional Health Authorities and Alberta Health and Wellness monitor drinking water. Drinking water in First Nations communities is generally under federal jurisdiction (Government of Alberta, Environment, 2009).

Drinking water falls under the jurisdiction of a number of regulations, which are enabled by three distinct Acts: the Agricultural Operation Practices Act (2000), the Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (2000), and the Public Health Act (2000).

The regulations under Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (EPEA) relevant to drinking water are:

  • Activities Designation Regulation (1996)-waterworks systems regulated by Alberta Environment
  • Potable Water Regulation (2002)-minimum design standards for approved surface and groundwater treatment and distribution systems
  • Approvals and Registration Procedure Regulation (1993)-steps to be followed to acquire an approval or registration for a waterworks facility
  • Environmental Appeal Board Regulation (1993)-process in submitting an appeal
The regulations under the Public Health Act (2000) relevant to drinking water:

  • Nuisance and General Sanitation Regulation (2003)-requirements associated with domestic water and sewage systems that are outside the scope of EPEA.
The regulations under the Agricultural Operation Practices Act (2000) relevant to drinking water:

  • Standards and Administration Regulation (2000)-standards for confined feeding operations for the containment of the number of animals, manure storage facilities, seasonal feeding and bedding sites. (Note:¬† These types of operations are critical issues for drinking water in some parts of Alberta).
Once treated water moves out of the waterworks distribution system past the service connection for a residence, Municipal Affairs governs under the Safety Codes Act (2000), including the Plumbing Code Regulation.

Drinking water providers must provide annual reports to Alberta Environment; Alberta Environment is working toward monthly reporting. 

First Nations communities are located on Federal Reserve land, which falls within Federal jurisdiction. Provincial drinking water legislation does not apply to these communities.


last update: (Apr 30/14)
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Drinking Water Protection Regulation (2003) governs the standards for potable water, domestic water systems, treatment, operating permits, water monitoring analysis, qualification standards for operators, and emergency response and contingency plans.

First Nations communities are located on Federal Reserve land, which falls within Federal jurisdiction. Provincial drinking water legislation does not apply to these communities. 

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The Drinking Water Safety Act (2002) is responsible for safe drinking water. 

On Aboriginal reserves drinking water is a federal responsibility.

First Nations communities are located on Federal Reserve land, which falls within Federal jurisdiction. Provincial drinking water legislation does not apply to these communities.


last update: (Sep 30/11)
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Source Water Protection
The Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (2000), Water Act (2000), Water for Life: Alberta's Strategy for Sustainability (Government of Alberta, 2003), Drinking Water Program (Government of Alberta, 2009), and Framework for Water Management Planning (1999) all contribute to protection of drinking water sources. However, Alberta has no specific source water protection legislation.

Alberta fully adopts the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (2009). Operator certification is required. The treatment required from the province includes disinfection for both groundwater and surface water, and filtration for surface and shallow groundwater supplies. Municipalities must submit monthly and annual reports to Alberta Environment.  Water for Life (2003) outlines adoption of a multi-barrier source-to-tap approach as one of its medium-term actions. However, source water protection planning is not an explicit activity of watershed councils or government. Source water protection may be part of watershed planning in general, though regional Watershed Council integrated watershed management plans are aspirational rather than regulatory documents.  Most recently a May 2009 document entitled, Alberta Environment's Drinking Water Program: A Source to Tap, Multibarrier Approach (Government of Alberta, 2009a) explains the regulatory framework for Alberta's drinking water. To date, the approved Lower Athabasca regional land-use plan includes several water regulatory instruments called management frameworks, intended to limit cumulative land use impacts. A surface water quality framework includes water quality indicators with limits, as well as 'trigger' values that trigger management actions. A groundwater management framework includes quality and quantity indicators and interim 'trigger' values. The draft South Saskatchewan regional plan also has a draft surface water quality management framework. Source water protection policy does not address protection of First Nations water. The Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (2000), Water Act (2000), Water for Life: Alberta's Strategy for Sustainability (Government of Alberta, 2003), Drinking Water Program (Government of Alberta, 2009), and Framework for Water Management Planning (1999) all contribute to protection of drinking water sources. However, Alberta has no specific legislated source water protection legislation.

Alberta fully adopts the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (2009). Operator certification is required. The treatment required from the province includes disinfection for both groundwater and surface water, and filtration for surface and shallow groundwater supplies. Municipalities must submit monthly and annual reports to Alberta Environment. 

Water for Life (2003) outlines adoption of a multi-barrier source-to-tap approach as one of its medium-term actions. However, source water protection planning is not an explicit activity of watershed councils or government. Source water protection may be part of watershed planning in general or land-use planning in general. Most recently a May 2009 document entitled, Alberta Environment's Drinking Water Program: A Source to Tap, Multibarrier Approach (Government of Alberta, 2009a) explains the regulatory framework for Alberta's drinking water.

Source water protection policy does not address protection of First Nations water.


last update: (Apr 30/14)
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There is no direct source water protection (SWP) policy. Together the following acts, regulations, and government plans, govern the protection of source water in BC: Action Plan for Safe Drinking Water in British Columbia (Government of British Columbia, Ministry of Health Planning & Ministry of Health Services, 2002); Drinking Water Protection Act (2001); Drinking Water Protection Regulation (2003); Environmental Management Act (2003); and Water Act (1996).

The large percentage of crown lands in BC (94% of the land base) and the dominance of the forestry industry have acted as catalysts for SWP. Forest practices in BC are governed by the Forest and Range Practices Act (FRPA) which replaced the Forest Practices Code in 2003, includes guidelines for protecting drinking water in community watersheds-defined as relatively small watersheds functioning as drinking water sources and partially owned by the Crown-from the effects of such uses as logging, road building, recreation, and agriculture. Effectiveness of these guidelines and associated plans has been variable. More recently, BC health districts have taken a lead role in SWP. SWPs are neither required nor directly funded, but the Drinking Water Protection Act (2001) does allow Drinking Water Protection Plans to be developed with the order of the Minister and on a scale as determined by the Minister. However, these plans are generally developed as a last resort and threats to drinking water are only to be identified by water suppliers if the provincial drinking water officers order a Water System Assessment. Other means available for SWPs include: watershed-based land reserves under the Land Act (1996), area-based planning under the Environmental Management Act (2003) and Water Management Plans under the Water Act (1996). A 2004 amendment to Part 4 of the Water Act allows the province to develop water management plans, which may be the most feasible, direct, and flexible tool for protecting source water available to the province. SWP policy does not address protection of First Nations water. 
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The Drinking Water Safety Act (2003), Groundwater and Water Well Act (2006), Manitoba Provincial Water Strategy (2003), and the Water Protection Act (2006) all encompass source water protection measures in one form or another.

Manitoba's water strategy focuses on an integrated watershed planning and management approach. This involves consolidating water management into one department, Water Stewardship, and developing comprehensive legislation to merge water related policy into a few Acts. The Water Protection Act (2006) explicitly recognizes that clean drinking water requires source protection. Provincial policies regarding drinking water emphasize aquatic integrity to support higher quality water for human consumption. Source water protection plans are to be developed by water planning authorities as part of an Integrated Watershed Resource Management Plan (Government of Manitoba, n.d) to evaluate and mitigate risks to source water and assist local governments with protecting water quality. Where Conservation Districts exist, they may be designated as the Water Planning Authority for their watershed.

Source water protection policy does not address protection of First Nations water.


last update: (Sep 30/11)
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Wellfield Protection

There is no formal policy. Water well drilling rules are prescribed in Part 7 of the Water (Ministerial) Regulations under the Water Act (2000).  Water well regulations will be changing. 

last update: (Apr 30/14)
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Wellfield protection planning is addressed in § 2(1)(a) of the Drinking Water Protection Act (2001), which states, -A person must not introduce anything or cause or allow anything to be introduced into a domestic water system, a drinking water source, a well recharge zone or an area adjacent to a drinking water source.  There are no specific treatment requirements, only -end of pipe quality requirements, so there are no differences in surface or groundwater treatments. Well drillers must be certified as per the 2004 Ground Water Protection Regulation. 

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The Ground Water and Water Well Act (2008) regulates the management of well. A driller's license is required to drill. There is guidance for well water treatment but no standards. There does not appear to be wellfield protection planning, just a general clause to protect groundwater from contamination.

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Groundwater Permitting
Groundwater licensing was enabled under the Water Resources Act (1962) -the Water Act (2000) predecessor.  Permits are not required for domestic use or for traditional agriculture. Well drillers are required to submit completed well logs to Alberta Environment. Groundwater permits are recorded at regional offices. Alberta Environment regulates groundwater under direct influence (GUDI) of nearby surface water as surface water (Government of Alberta, 2009b).

Alberta defines and protects fresh groundwater based on a definition of  "water with a concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) of 4,000 mg/L or higher." Provincial permitting processes do not apply to Federal lands such as First Nations reserves and communities. Groundwater licensing was enabled under the Water Resources Act (1962) -the Water Act (2000) predecessor.  Permits are not required for domestic use or for traditional agriculture. Well drillers are required to submit completed well logs to Alberta Environment. Groundwater permits are recorded at regional offices. Alberta Environment regulates groundwater under direct influence (GUDI) of nearby surface water as surface water (Government of Alberta, 2009b).

Provincial permitting processes do not apply to Federal lands such as First Nations reserves and communities.


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There is no groundwater licensing at this time, though the new Water Sustainability Act will bring groundwater into the licensing system. The 2004 Groundwater Protection Regulation focuses on well drilling and construction standards, as well as groundwater quality protection through the sealing of unused wells. Driller certification is now required under the 2004 Groundwater Protection Regulations.

The BC Ministry of Environment (1995) manages wells, but the submission of well records is not mandatory. It is estimated that there are more than 100,000 wells in the province. Provincial permitting processes do not apply to Federal lands such as First Nations reserves and communities.  
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The Department of Water Stewardship manages the groundwater license process, which is mandated under the Water Rights Act (2006) and regulated under the water rights regulation. The permit process for groundwater requires reporting to be done by licensee by location, source, and purpose of extraction. While notification requirements for permit applications are discretionary every licence holder is required to keep records of water use on a form approved by the minister. If an environmental assessment procedure is required then public opportunity to comment is allowed although any person affected by an order or decision can appeal (Ground Water and Water Well Act, 2010)

The Manitoba Floodway Authority has established a Groundwater Action Response Plan (MFA, n.d.), which includes a 24-hour/day, 7-day/week, toll-free telephone line to respond to any well water impacts that may be experienced by property owners in the vicinity of construction. This toll-free number helps to ensure that the Manitoba Floodway Authority responds in a timely manner to any unforeseen and temporary groundwater impacts due to construction. The Manitoba Floodway Authority does not anticipate any permanent groundwater impacts for water in your well over the course of the project

Provincial permitting processes do not apply to Federal lands such as First Nations reserves and communities.


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Storm/Waste Water Management
The Acts and Regulations relevant to municipal wastewater and stormwater management are:

  • Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (2000)
  • Activities Designation Regulation (1996)
  • Approvals and Registrations Procedure Regulation (1993)
  • Release Reporting Regulation (1993)
  • Substance Release Regulation (1993)
  • Wastewater and Storm Drainage Regulation (1993)
  • Wastewater and Storm Drainage (Ministerial) Regulation (1993)
  • Standards and Guidelines for Municipal Water Works, Wastewater and Storm Drainage Systems (2006, updated in 2012/13).
Provincial or territorial policies and strategies do not apply or include First Nations reserves or communities. The Acts and Regulations relevant to municipal wastewater and stormwater management are:

  • Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (2000)
  • Activities Designation Regulation (1996)
  • Approvals and Registrations Procedure Regulation (1993)
  • Release Reporting Regulation (1993)
  • Substance Release Regulation (1993)
  • Wastewater and Storm Drainage Regulation (1993)
  • Wastewater and Storm Drainage (Ministerial) Regulation (1993)
  • Standards and Guidelines for Municipal Water Works, Wastewater and Storm Drainage Systems (2006.
Provincial or territorial policies and strategies do not apply or include First Nations reserves or communities.


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There does not appear to be any provincial stormwater or wastewater regulation; it is a municipal responsibility.

Provincial or territorial policies and strategies do not apply or include First Nations reserves or communities.  

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Regular overflows of sewage into the Red River result from combined sewage and stormwater in Winnipeg.  The province has mandated upgrading of the City's wastewater treatment both to handle increased capacity and to remove nitrogen and phosphorus.

In September 2009, the province announced new regulations for sewage disposal to prohibit the use of a disposal field for new systems in sensitive areas, Crown land cottage developments, provincial parks, and portions of the Red River corridor; the installation of new sewage ejectors and eliminate existing sewage ejectors at the time of any property transfer. The regulations will require a two-acre minimum lot size for the installation of disposal fields, a hookup to municipal collection systems in serviced areas, and municipal waste-water management planning (Water Works, Sewerage and Sewage Disposal Regulation, 1988)

Provincial or territorial policies and strategies do not apply or include First Nations reserves or communities.


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Ecosystem Quality Needs
Watershed management plans can set water quality objectives based on a variety of water uses; ecosystem needs can, but does not necessarily have to, be one of these uses. Setting these objectives can be for the purposes of reducing water quality impacts on ecosystem quality. The Bow River Basin Watershed Management Plan (2008), for example, sets out voluntary water quality objectives for water users in the basin. Watershed management plans may also consider other aspects of watershed management.  

Watershed management plans can set water quality objectives based on a variety of water uses; ecosystem needs can, but does not necessarily have to, be one of these uses.  Setting these objectives can be for the purposes of reducing water quality impacts on ecosystem quality.  The Bow River Basin Watershed Management Plan (2008), for example, sets out voluntary water quality objectives for water users in the basin.  Watershed management plans may also consider other aspects of watershed management.
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A guideline is given for each substance (e.g., cyanide, lead, copper, nitrate, algae, chlorine, nitrogen, and so on-there are 50 listed substances) based on seven different possible water uses: drinking water, aquatic life (freshwater and marine), wildlife, recreation and aesthetics, agriculture (irrigation and livestock watering), and industrial (e.g., food processing industry). Aquatic life would be the ecosystem quality needs portion, and there are different guidelines for each substance. The guidelines appear to be non-binding, and they serve as the benchmarks for the assessment of water quality and setting water quality objectives (Government of British Columbia, Ministry of Environment, 2006, Introduction section, ¶ 4).

BC's Living Water Smart plan says that, by 2012, legislation will recognize water flow requirements for ecosystems and species (Government of British Columbia, n.d.c, ¶ 6).   
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The Manitoba Environment Act (1996), regulates wastewater treatment plants. The set terms and conditions require communities to regularly monitor plant operations and the quality of effluent discharged from the plants to the rivers. This includes daily routine tests for biochemical oxygen demand and for nutrients such as phosphorus. It should be noted that Manitoba does not have a formal system of calculating and imposing in-stream flow needs when considering both withdrawals and discharges for example the in-stream flow needs for the Assiniboine River was arbitrarily set at 200 cubic feet per second 40 years ago and remains so today (Brandson, personal communication, January 10, 2010).


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 Water Quantity
Water Conservation Strategy
The Alberta Water Council (a provincial multi-stakeholder advisory group) has developed a framework for water conservation, efficiency, and productivity planning for major water-using sectors. All 7 sectors, within the Alberta Water Council (Urban Municipalities, Irrigation, Upstream Oil and Gas, Forestry, Downstream Petroleum, Power Generation and Chemical) have developed draft plans for their sectors. It is unclear how these plans will affect individual companies or industries and what will be required if plans are not implemented. At this point, these plans have no legal authority.

Specific to the oil and gas sector, the Oilfield Injection Policy, and the Energy Resources Conservation Board's Draft Directive, Requirements for Water Measurement, Reporting, and Use for Thermal In Situ Oil Sands Schemes (2009), provide direction to conserve water use. Provincial or territorial policies and strategies do not apply or include First Nations reserves or communities. Learn more about Alberta's conservation initiatives and requirements through the Alliance for Water Efficiency.   The Alberta Water Council (a provincial multi-stakeholder advisory group) has developed a framework for sectoral water conservation, efficiency, and productivity planning. The urban municipality sector, and the irrigation sector have developed draft plans for their sectors. Other sectors have also begun drafting such plans (Alberta Water Council, 2009).  It is unclear how these plans will affect individual companies and what will be required of those who do create individual plans without implementation. At this point, these plans have no legal authority.

Specific to the oil and gas sector, the Oilfield Injection Policy, and the Energy Resources Conservation Board's Draft Directive, Requirements for Water Measurement, Reporting, and Use for Thermal In Situ Oil Sands Schemes (2009), provide direction to conserve water use.

Provincial or territorial policies and strategies do not apply or include First Nations reserves or communities.

Learn more about Alberta's conservation initiatives and requirements through the Alliance for Water Efficiency. 


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BC's Living Water Smart plan says that the BC Government will require all users to cut back their water use in times of drought or where stream health is threatened (Government of British Columbia, n.d.b, ¶ 5), and that by 2020, water use in BC will be 33% more efficient (¶ 10).

Provincial or territorial policies and strategies do not apply or include First Nations reserves or communities. Learn more about British Columbia's conservation initiatives and requirements with the Alliance for Water Efficiency.  
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Manitoba Water Stewardship is tasked with developing a Water Efficiency Strategy. The purpose of this strategy would be to identify:
  • ways to help Manitobans achieve water efficiency (incentives),
  • requirements for Manitobans to achieve water efficiency (regulations), and
  • Information and guidelines on water use (what you should know). (Government of Manitoba, n.d., ¬∂ 3-5)
Provincial or territorial policies and strategies do not apply or include First Nations reserves or communities.

Learn more about Manitoba conservation initiatives and requirements at the Alliance for Water Efficiency.


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Ecosystem Quantity Needs
There are two ways in which ecosystem needs are addressed in the relevant legislation.  One way is through the Water Act (2000) and its provisions for aquatic ecosystem protection; the second is through the use of conservation holdbacks when water rights are transferred.

As a matter of practice government has balanced economic factors with instream flow requirements to determine water conservation objectives (WCO).  For example, in the South Saskatchewan River Basin WCO is set at 45% of average annual natural flow or 15% above what are called instream objectives (which have very little to do with scientifically determined instream flow needs), whichever is greater. Since instream flow needs typically align with natural flow, 45% of natural flow will not likely meet instream needs. WCOs are applied according to the first in time, first in right  (FITFIR) priority system and, therefore, WCOs applied in 2005 have a priority of 2005 and cannot affect the licences allocated prior to 2005. To apply the WCO, conditions must be set out in licences and this is done on a prospective basis and does not capture older licenses with greater priority (e.g., older than 2005). Some older licenses have retrofit conditions, which would enable government to stipulate a WCO condition, but to date government has been hesitant to impose such conditions on older licenses (Government of Alberta, 2003). Conservation Holdbacks (holdbacks) allow the Director to holdback up to 10% of water in a water right transferred to another water user (Government of Alberta, 2003). Holdbacks can only be applied once an approved water management plan is established and approves water rights transfers and conservation holdbacks.  These holdbacks can be documented as WCO licenses with the same priority as the licence out of which it was withheld. They are used if the Director is of the opinion that withholding water is in the public interest to protect the aquatic environment or to implement a water conservation objective (Government of Alberta, 2003). The land-use management plans currently in development across the province of Alberta will develop frameworks for surface water quantity management.  To date the Lower Athabasca is the only regional framework that has been completed.   There are two ways in which ecosystem needs are addressed in the relevant legislation.  One way is through the Water Act (2000) and its provisions for aquatic ecosystem protection; the second is through the use of conservation holdbacks when water rights are transferred.

As a matter of practice government has balanced economic factors with instream flow requirements to determine water conservation objectives (WCO).  For example, in the South Saskatchewan River Basin WCO is set at 45% of natural flow or 15% above what are called instream objectives, whichever is greater. Since instream flow needs typically align with natural flow, 45% of natural flow will not likely meet instream needs.

WCOs are applied according to the first in time, first in right  (FITFIR) priority system and, therefore, WCOs applied in 2005 have a priority of 2005 and cannot affect the licences allocated prior to 2005. To apply the WCO, conditions must be set out in licences and this is done on a prospective basis and does not capture older licenses with greater priority (e.g., older than 2005). Some older licenses have retrofit conditions, which would enable government to stipulate a WCO condition, but to date government has been hesitant to impose such conditions on older licenses (Government of Alberta, 2003).

Conservation Holdbacks (holdbacks) allow the Director to holdback up to 10% of water in a water right transferred to another water user (Government of Alberta, 2003). Holdbacks can only be applied once an approved water management plan is established and approves water rights transfers and conservation holdbacks.  These holdbacks can be documented as WCO licenses with the same priority as the licence out of which it was withheld. They are used if the Director is of the opinion that withholding water is in the public interest to protect the aquatic environment or to implement a water conservation objective (Government of Alberta, 2003).


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Not at this time, though more rigorous provisions are likely through the Water Sustainability Act.


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The issuance of a Water Rights License in Manitoba, in addition to determining the availability of water for allocation, requires an estimate of a threshold flow above which a user may pump water from the stream. This flow value is referred to as an in-stream Flow Need (IFN). IFNs were established to protect a stream's environmental needs and downstream riparian users. The IFN is a specified minimum instantaneous flow that determines when a user may pump from the stream. Only when the flow in the stream is greater than the IFN can pumping occur. If the flow is less than the IFN, pumping must cease (Nowlen, 2005).

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Interbasin Transfers

Water transfers out of the country, with the exception of processed water and municipal water, are prohibited under the Water Act (2000). Water transfers between basins are also prohibited under the Water Act, except where authorized by a specific act of the legislature stipulated under the Water Act. There have been at least three such legislative authorizations since the new Act came into force in 2000. Water transfers between basins existing prior to the Water Act are protected, including transfers that are part of the St Mary, Belly, and Waterton system.

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Interbasin transfers-defined as large-scale projects capable of transferring water from one major watershed to another-are prohibited. Diversions or water extractions that would result in the project's having the capability of transferring water at a peak instantaneous flow of 10,000 L/s or more are also prohibited. These restrictions are stipulated under the Water Protection Act (1996). 

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Regulated under the Water Resources Conservation Act (2006) interbasin transfers are prohibited in quantities greater than 25 litres in one container. Some transfers continue today that predate that ban, most notably the Churchill River Diversion in the North (Brandson, personal communications, January 10, 2010).


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Climate Change Linkage
The Government of Alberta released its Climate Change Strategy (2008).  It mentions water in few instances: One action will

develop a provincial Climate Change adaptation strategy to provide overall direction, identify measures and indicators of climate change, provide a source of information about the impacts, and identify risks and vulnerabilities. It will focus on water, biodiversity, energy, municipal infrastructure, agriculture and forestry... [Also,] within the provincial government, this work must be integrated with land use planning policies, a comprehensive energy strategy, a clean air strategy, technology development and commercialization, provincial water plans, economic development and rural development strategies for the province. (21) Water for Life: A Renewal (Government of Alberta, 2009) also mentions climate change, unlike the original Water for Life (Government of Alberta, 2003) strategy. The Government of Alberta released its Climate Change Strategy (2008).  It mentions water in few instances: One action will "develop a provincial Climate Change adaptation strategy to provide overall direction, identify measures and indicators of climate change, provide a source of information about the impacts, and identify risks and vulnerabilities. It will focus on water, biodiversity, energy, municipal infrastructure, agriculture and forestry... [Also,] within the provincial government, this work must be integrated with land use planning policies, a comprehensive energy strategy, a clean air strategy, technology development and commercialization, provincial water plans, economic development and rural development strategies for the province." (21)

Water for Life: A Renewal (Government of Alberta, 2005) also mentions climate change, unlike the original Water for Life (Government of Alberta, 2003) strategy.


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The BC Climate Action Charter is an agreement between local governments, the Province and the Union of BC Municipalities to minimize the net greenhouse gas emissions of municipal operations. Starting in 2012, this will be achieved through the combination of local mitigation efforts and the purchase of greenhouse gas offset credits by municipal governments. Both water and wastewater services fall under the scope of the charter. BC First Nations are exempt from provincial charters.

The province makes the following commitments in the Living Water Smart Plan (Government of British Columbia, n.d.b):
  • By 2012 new approaches to water management will address the impacts from a changing water cycle, increased drought risk and other impacts on water caused by climate change;
  • Government will work with other provinces to share ideas and resources to improve water conservation and collectively help communities adapt to climate change;
  • Community development strategies will be developed to recognize the importance of riparian zones in adapting to climate change, and;
  • Adapting to climate change and reducing our impact on the environment will be a condition for receiving provincial infrastructure funding. (Preparing Communities For Change section, ¬∂ 1-4)
Nowlan (2008) notes Natural Resources Canada commissioned a research report released in 2008 showing that the likely impacts of climate change in BC include increasing water shortages, increasing competition among water users such as hydroelectricity, irrigation, communities, recreation and in-stream flow needs, and increasing water stress for the forestry, fishery and agricultural sectors. (p. 10) On January 25th, 2010, an initiative -Preparing for Climate Change: Securing B.C.'s Water Future (Natural Resources Canada, 2010, ¶ 3) was announced and will be coordinated by the non-profit Fraser Basin Council and the B.C. Ministry of Environment. Natural Resources Canada is providing $3.3 million of the $6.9 million, which includes contributions from 18 partners in provincial ministries, local governments, First Nations and non-governmental organizations, the private sector, and academia.  
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In 2002, the government released Manitoba's first climate change Action Plan.  By 2008 the Government outlined a strategy for action for the energy sector, transportation, agriculture, municipalities, business, and citizens.  the strategy included an adaptation strategy (Government of Manitoba, 2011).

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 References

Document Disclaimer:

Every effort has been made to ensure complete accuracy of the content of this briefing note but this document is only a summary and should not be considered legal or planning advice.  Please refer to the relevant legislation and regulations for further information.

References

Activities Designation Regulation, Alta. Reg. 211/1996   Agricultural Operation Practices Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. A-7                   
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
                  
       Alberta Environment. (1999). Framework for Water Management Planning. Retrieved      March 26th, 2010, from                   
                http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/po
sting.asp?assetid=6367&categoryid=5
Alberta Environment. (2006a). Approved Water Management Plan for the South     Saskatchewan River Basin (Alberta) Retrieved March 26th, 2010, from: http://environment.alberta.ca/docume
nts/SSRB_Plan_Phase2.pdf
Alberta Environment. (2006b). Standards and Guidelines for Municipal Water Works,        Wastewater and Storm Drainage Systems. Retrieved March 26th, 2010, from:             http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
brary/6979.pdf
Alberta Land Stewardship Act, S.A. 2009, c. A-26.8 Alberta Natural Resources Act, S.C. 1930, c. 3 Alberta Water Council. (2009). What we've learned: About water conservation,      efficiency and productivity sector planning. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from                         http://www.albertawatercouncil.ca/Po
rtals/0/pdfs/CEP_What_Weve_Learned_v
2.pdf
Approvals and Registrations Procedure Regulation, Alta. Reg. 113/1993 International Boundary Waters Treaty Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. I-17 Bow Basin Watershed Management Plan Steering Committee. (2008). The Bow River       Basin Watershed Management Plan. Retrieved March 26th, 2010, from:             http://www.brbc.ab.ca/pdfs/100111BBW
MP_ICV1.pdf
de Lo√ę R.C., Varghese, J., Ferreyra, C., & Kreutzwiser, R.D. (2007).¬† Water allocation ¬†¬†¬†¬† and water security in Canada:¬† Initiating a policy dialogue for the 21st century.¬† ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Guelph, Ontario: Water Policy and Governance Group, University of Guelph. Department of Justice Canada. (2010a). Information on the Fisheries Act. Retrieved ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† March 7, 2010, from http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/F-14/in
dex.html Department of Justice Canada. (2010b). Information on the Migratory Birds Convention    Act. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/M-7.01/
Energy Resources Conservation Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. E-10 Energy Resources Conservation Board. (2009). Requirements for Water Measurement,       Reporting, and Use for Thermal In Situ Oil Sands Schemes. Retrieved March 26,            2010 from http://environment.alberta.ca/3255.h
tml
Environmental Appeal Board Regulation, Alta. Reg. 114/1993 Environment Canada. (1969). Master Agreement on Apportionment. Retrieved March 26, 2010 from http://www.mb.ec.gc.ca/water/fb01/fb
00s05.en.html Environment Canada. (1987). Federal Water Policy.  Retrieved March 26, 2010, from http://www.ec.gc.ca/eau-water/defaul
t.asp?lang=En&n=D11549FA-1
Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. E-12 Fisheries Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. F-14   Government of Alberta (2013).  Protecting Alberta's Environment Act. Retrieved March 13th, 2014, from                      http://www.qp.alberta.ca/546.cfm?pag
e=p26p8_13.cfm&leg_type=fall
  Government of Alberta (2012).  Lower Athabasca Regional Plan. Retrieved March 24th, 2014, from https://landuse.alberta.ca/RegionalP
lans/LowerAthabascaRegion/Pages/defa
ult.aspx
  Government of Alberta (2012).  Lower Athabasca Region Groundwater Management Framework. Retrieved March 24th, 2014 from http://environment.alberta.ca/docume
nts/LARP_Framework_GroundwaterMgt_FI
NALv2.pdf   Government of Alberta, Environment. (n.d.a). Lakes sampled for water quality in Alberta 2009-10. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
brary/8047.pdf
Government of Alberta, Environment. (n.d.b). Long-term river network sites for water       quality monitoring in Alberta 2009-2010. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from          http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
brary/7713.pdf
Government of Alberta, Environment. (1995). Water quality-based effluent limits    procedures manual. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from          http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
brary/7255.pdf Government of Alberta, Environment. (2000). Authorization/approval viewer. Retrieved   March 7, 2010, from             http://envext02.env.gov.ab.ca/pls/xe
dp_apv/avwp_avwh1000_02.startup?Z_CH
K=0
Government of Alberta, Environment. (2005). Inventory of sampling locations and water   quality [data file]. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from          http://envext02.env.gov.ab.ca/crysta
l/aenv/viewreport.csp?RName=Inventor
y%20of%20Sampling%20Locations%20and%
20Water%20Quality%20Data
Government of Alberta, Environment. (2009). Legislation. Retrieved March 7, 2010,         from http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/waste/muni
wwater/legislation.html
Government of Alberta, Environment. (2010a). Alberta river water quality index.  Retrieved March 7, 2010, from http://www.environment.alberta.ca/17
77.html
Government of Alberta, Environment. (2010b). Drinking water. Retrieved March 7, 2010,            from http://environment.alberta.ca/1477.h
tml
Government of Alberta, Environment. (2010c). Groundwater observation well network.    Retrieved March 7, 2010, from      http://www.environment.alberta.ca/ap
ps/GOWN/Default.aspx
Government of Alberta, Environment. (2010d). Surface water quality program. Retrieved             March 7, 2010, from      http://www.environment.alberta.ca/ap
ps/GOWN/Default.aspx
Government of Alberta, Environment. (2010). Legislation and guidelines. Retrieved          March 7, 2010, from http://environment.alberta.ca/3.html
Government of Alberta. (2003, November). Water for life: Alberta's strategy for     sustainability. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from   http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
brary/6190.pdf
Government of Alberta. (2005, September). Water in Alberta: A renewal. Retrieved           March 7, 2010, from             http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/water/gwsw
/quantity/waterinalberta/index.html
Government of Alberta (2008) Alberta's 2008 Climate Change Strategy:    responsibility/leadership/action. Retrieved March 30, 2010, from        http://environment.alberta.ca/3295.h
tml Government of Alberta. (2008, November). Water for life strategy. Retrieved March 7,      2010, from http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
brary/8035.pdf
Government of Alberta. (2009a, May). Alberta Environment's drinking water program: A             'source to tap, multi-barrier' approach. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from             http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
brary/8156.pdf
Government of Alberta. (2009b, December). South Saskatchewan Region - groundwater: Facts at your fingertips. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from   http://www.landuse.alberta.ca/Region
alPlans/SouthSaskatchewan/documents/
SSRP-Groundwater-FactsatYourFingerti
ps-Dec2009.pdf
Government of Alberta (2009c) Water for Life Action Plan. Retrieved March 23, 2010 from: http://www.waterforlife.alberta.ca/ Government of Alberta, Environment (2010) Alberta Environment's approval process.       Retrieved March 26, 2010, from: http://environment.alberta.ca/644.ht
ml
Government of Alberta. (n.d.). Water Act: Licenses: Facts at your fingertips. Retrieved      March 7, 2010, from http://environment.alberta.ca/docume
nts/WaterAct_Licences_FS.pdf
Government of Canada. (1997). Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement.  Retrieved March, 26, 2010 from http://www.ngps.nt.ca/Upload/Interve
ners/Government%20of%20the%20Northwe
st%20Territories/j-gnwt-00027/docume
nts/08_Mackenzie_Master_Agreement.pd
f Health Canada (2008). Guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality.  Retrieved March 26, 2010, from, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/alt_
formats/hecs-
sesc/pdf/pubs/water-eau/sum_guide-res_recom/summary-somm
aire-eng.pdf
Irrigation Districts Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. I-11 Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994, S.C. 1994, c. 22   Municipal Government Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. M-26 Navigable Waters Protection Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. N-22   North-west Irrigation Act (1898) under Alberta Natural Resources Act, S.C. 1930, c. 3 Nuisance and General Sanitation Regulation, Alta. Reg. 243/2003, (Public Health Act), Potable Water Regulation, Alta. Reg. 277/2003, (Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act) Public Health Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. P-37 Public Lands Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. P-40 Public Utilities Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. P-45 Release Reporting Regulation, Alta. Reg. 117/1993 Safety Codes Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. S-1 Substance Release Regulation, Alta. Reg. 124/1993 Standards and Administration Regulation, Alta. Reg. 267/2001, (Agricultural Operation Practices Act) Transport Canada. (2009). Acts and regulations. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from             http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/acts-regulat
ions/acts-1985cn-22.htm
Wastewater and Storm Drainage (Ministerial) Regulation, Alta. Reg. 120/1993 Wastewater and Storm Drainage Regulation, Alta. Reg. 119/1993 Water Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. W-3, Consolidated Statutes of Alberta - Alberta Document Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure complete accuracy of the content of this briefing note but this document is only a summary and should not be considered legal or planning advice.  Please refer to the relevant legislation and regulations for further information.

References

Activities Designation Regulation, Alta. Reg. 211/1996

Agricultural Operation Practices Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. A-7

Alberta Environment and Water. (1999). Framework for Water Management Planning. Retrieved March 26th, 2010, from http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/po
sting.asp?assetid=6367&categoryid=5


Alberta Environment and Water. (2006a). Approved Water Management Plan for the South Saskatchewan River Basin (Alberta) Retrieved March 26th, 2010, from: http://environment.alberta.ca/docume
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Alberta Environment and Water. (2006b). Standards and Guidelines for Municipal Water Works, Wastewater and Storm Drainage Systems. Retrieved March 26th, 2010, from:           http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
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Alberta Land Stewardship Act, S.A. 2009, c. A-26.8

Alberta Natural Resources Act, S.C. 1930, c. 3

Alberta Water Council. (2009). What we've learned: About water conservation, efficiency and productivity sector planning. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from http://www.albertawatercouncil.ca/Po
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Approvals and Registrations Procedure Regulation, Alta. Reg. 113/1993

International Boundary Waters Treaty Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. I-17

Bow Basin Watershed Management Plan Steering Committee. (2008). The Bow River       Basin Watershed Management Plan. Retrieved March 26th, 2010, from: http://www.water-matters.org/story/1
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de Lo√ę R.C., Varghese, J., Ferreyra, C., & Kreutzwiser, R.D. (2007).¬† Water allocation and water security in Canada:¬† Initiating a policy dialogue for the 21st century. Guelph, Ontario: Water Policy and Governance Group, University of Guelph.

Department of Justice Canada. (2010a). Information on the Fisheries Act. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/F-14/in
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Department of Justice Canada. (2010b). Information on the Migratory Birds Convention    Act. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/M-7.01/


Energy Resources Conservation Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. E-10

Energy Resources Conservation Board. (2009). Requirements for Water Measurement, Reporting, and Use for Thermal In Situ Oil Sands Schemes. Retrieved March 26, 2010 from http://environment.alberta.ca/3255.h
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Environmental Appeal Board Regulation, Alta. Reg. 114/1993

Environment Canada. (1969). Master Agreement on Apportionment. Retrieved March 26, 2010 from http://www.mb.ec.gc.ca/water/fb01/fb
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Environment Canada. (1987). Federal Water Policy.  Retrieved March 26, 2010, from http://www.ec.gc.ca/eau-water/defaul
t.asp?lang=En&n=D11549FA-1


Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. E-12

Fisheries Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. F-14

Government of Alberta, Environment. (n.d.a). Lakes sampled for water quality in Alberta 2009-10. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
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Government of Alberta, Environment. (n.d.b). Long-term river network sites for water quality monitoring in Alberta 2009-2010. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
brary/7713.pdf

Government of Alberta. (n.d.c). Water Act: Licenses: Facts at your fingertips. Retrieved March 7, 2010, fromhttp://environment.alberta.ca/docume
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Government of Alberta, Environment. (1995). Water quality-based effluent limits procedures manual. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from   http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
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Government of Alberta, Environment. (2000). Authorization/approval viewer. Retrieved   March 7, 2010, from http://envext02.env.gov.ab.ca/pls/xe
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Government of Alberta. (2003, November). Water for life: Alberta's strategy for     sustainability. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from      http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
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Government of Alberta, Environment. (2005). Inventory of sampling locations and water   quality [data file]. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from          http://envext02.env.gov.ab.ca/crysta
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Government of Alberta, Environment. (2009). Legislation. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/waste/muni
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Government of Alberta. (2005, September). Water in Alberta: A renewal. Retrieved           March 7, 2010, from             http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/water/gwsw
/quantity/waterinalberta/index.html


Government of Alberta (2008) Alberta's 2008 Climate Change Strategy: responsibility/leadership/action. Retrieved March 30, 2010, from http://environment.alberta.ca/3295.h
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Government of Alberta. (2008, November). Water for life strategy. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
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Government of Alberta. (2009a, May). Alberta Environment's drinking water program: A 'source to tap, multi-barrier' approach. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/li
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Government of Alberta. (2009b, December). South Saskatchewan Region - groundwater: Facts at your fingertips. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from http://www.landuse.alberta.ca/Region
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Government of Alberta (2009c) Water for Life Action Plan. Retrieved March 23, 2010 from: http://www.waterforlife.alberta.ca/

Government of Alberta, Environment (2010) Alberta Environment's approval process. Retrieved March 26, 2010, from: http://environment.alberta.ca/644.ht
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Government of Alberta, Environment. (2010a). Alberta river water quality index.  Retrieved March 7, 2010, fromhttp://www.environment.alberta.ca/17
77.html


Government of Alberta, Environment. (2010b). Drinking water.Retrieved March 7, 2010, fromhttp://environment.alberta.ca/1477.h
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Government of Alberta, Environment. (2010c). Groundwater observation well network. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from   http://www.environment.alberta.ca/ap
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Government of Alberta, Environment. (2010d). Surface water quality program. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from
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Government of Alberta, Environment. (2010e). Legislation and guidelines. Retrieved March 7, 2010, fromhttp://environment.alberta.ca/3.html


Government of Canada. (1997). Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement.  Retrieved March, 26, 2010 from http://www.ngps.nt.ca/Upload/Interve
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Health Canada (2008). Guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality.  Retrieved March 26, 2010, from, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/wate
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Irrigation Districts Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. I-11

Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994, S.C. 1994, c. 22

Municipal Government Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. M-26

Navigable Waters Protection Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. N-22

North-west Irrigation Act (1898) under Alberta Natural Resources Act, S.C. 1930, c. 3

Nuisance and General Sanitation Regulation, Alta. Reg. 243/2003, (Public Health Act),

Potable Water Regulation, Alta. Reg. 277/2003, (Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act)

Public Health Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. P-37

Public Lands Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. P-40

Public Utilities Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. P-45

Release Reporting Regulation, Alta. Reg. 117/1993

Safety Codes Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. S-1

Substance Release Regulation, Alta. Reg. 124/1993

Standards and Administration Regulation, Alta. Reg. 267/2001, (Agricultural Operation Practices Act)

Transport Canada. (2009). Acts and regulations. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/acts-regulat
ions/acts-1985cn-22.htm


Wastewater and Storm Drainage (Ministerial) Regulation, Alta. Reg. 120/1993

Wastewater and Storm Drainage Regulation, Alta. Reg. 119/1993

Water Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. W-3, Consolidated Statutes of Alberta - Alberta


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Document Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure complete accuracy of the content of this briefing note but this document is only a summary and should not be considered legal or planning advice.  Please refer to the relevant legislation and regulations for further information.

References

BC Hydro. (2010). Who we are. Retrieved March 4, 2010, from http://www.bchydro.com/about

Bill 18-2014, Water Sustainability Act [British Columbia]

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British Columbia Dam Safety Regulation, B.C. Reg. 44/2000 [British Columbia]

Code of Practice for the Discharge of Produced Water from Coalbed Gas Operations, B.C. Reg. 156/2005 [British Columbia]

de Lo√ę R. C., Varghese, J., Ferreyra, C., & Kreutzwiser, R. D. (2007). Water allocation and water security in Canada: Initiating a policy dialogue for the 21st century. Guelph, ON: Water Policy and Governance Group, University of Guelph.

Dike Maintenance Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 95 [British Columbia]

Drainage, Ditch and Dike Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 102 [British Columbia]

Drinking Water Protection Act, R.S.B.C. 2001, c. 9 [British Columbia]

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Environmental Management Act, R.S.B.C. 2003, c. 53 [British Columbia]

Fish Protection Act, S.B.C. 1997, c. 21 [British Columbia]

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Sensitive Streams Designation and Licensing Regulation, B.C. Reg. 89/2000 [British Columbia]

Water Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 483 [British Columbia]

Water Protection Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 484 [British Columbia]

Water Utility Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 485 [British Columbia]

last update: (Apr 30/14)
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Document Disclaimer:

Every effort has been made to ensure complete accuracy of the content of this briefing note but this document is only a summary and should not be considered legal or planning advice. Please refer to the relevant legislation and regulations for further information.

References

Brandson, personal communication, January 10, 2010

Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (2010) Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Retrieved March 26, 2010 from http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/home-accuei
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Drinking Water Safety Act, C.C.S.M. c. D101  

Environment Act Fees Regulation, Man. Reg. 168/96

Friends of Earth Canada (2004) Friends of the Earth Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.foecanada.org/index.php?o
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Government of Manitoba (n.d.) Integrated Watershed Management Planning. Retrieved March 26, 2010 from             http://www.gov.mb.ca/waterstewardshi
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Government of Manitoba (2009) Manitoba Water Stewardship: Annual Report 2008 - 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.gov.mb.ca/waterstewardshi
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Goverment of Manitoba (2011) Next  Steps:  2008 Action on Climate Change. Retrieved from http://ww.gov.mb.ca/beyond_kyoto/

Government of Manitoba, Manitoba Conservation (n.d.) Manitoba Conservation.   Retrieved March 26, 2010, from http://www.gov.mb.ca/conservation/

Government of Manitoba, Manitoba Health (n.d.) Manitoba health. Retrieved March 26, 2010, from http://www.gov.mb.ca/health/

Government of Manitoba, Manitoba Infrastructure and Transportation (n.d.) Infrastructure and Transportation. Retrieved March, 26, 2010 from http://www.gov.mb.ca/mit/

Government of Manitoba, Manitoba Water Stewardship (n.d.) Beach Monitoring Data. Retrieved March 26, 2010, from    http://www.gov.mb.ca/waterstewardshi
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Government of Manitoba, Water Stewardship Division (2003) The Manitoba Water Strategy. Retrieved March 26, 2010 from 
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Government of Manitoba, Water Stewardship Division (n.d.) Transboundary Water Agreements. Retrieved March 26, 2010 from  http://www.gov.mb.ca/waterstewardshi
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Government of Manitoba, Water Stewardship Division (n.d.) Water Quality Management. Retrieved March 26, 2010 from http://www.gov.mb.ca/waterstewardshi
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Government of Manitoba, Water Stewardship Division (n.d.) Water Use Licensing - Ob   taining a Water Rights License. Retrieved March 26, 2010 from       http://www.gov.mb.ca/waterstewardshi
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Ground Water and Water Well Act, C.C.S.M. c. G110 International Boundary Waters Treaty Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. I-17

Manitoba Eco-Network (n.d.) The Pembina Valley Water Cooperative Supplementary Water Supply Project - More Pipes, More Water? Retrieved March 26, 2010 from http://www.mbeconetwork.org/wc/pdfs/
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Manitoba Floodway Authority (n.d.) Groundwater Action Response Plan. Retrieved March 26, 2010 from                    
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Environment Canada. (1969). Master Agreement on Apportionment. Retrieved March 26, 2010 from  http://www.mb.ec.gc.ca/water/fb01/fb
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Nowlan (2006) Buried Treasure: Groundwater Permitting and Pricing in Canada  Retrieved March 26, 2010 from http://www.buriedtreasurecanada.or
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Nutrient Management Regulation, Man. Reg. 62/2008  

Public Health Act, C.C.S.M. c. P210

Water Protection Act, C.C.S.M. c. W65

Water Resources Conservation Act, C.C.S.M. c. W72

Water Rights Act, C.C.S.M. c. W80

Water Supply Commissions Act, C.C.S.M. c. W100

Water Works, Sewerage and Sewage Disposal Regulation, Man. Reg. 331/88 R

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